Prostate cancer is a malignant disease of the prostate (prostate cancer).
It is one of the most common tumors in men besides colon cancer and lung cancer.
It is most common in men over 45 years while at younger people is rare.
It is not clear yet the reason for developing prostate cancer, although there are many theories. However, none of these theories so far has been fully recognized, and is very likely that several factors all contribute to cancer.
There are different stages of developing prostate cancer, and they are classified according to the TNM classification or ABC (the latter is used in the US).
The classification is quite complex as it involves the substage which also significantly affect the decision on further treatment.
A simplified division, sufficient for understanding the essence would be the following:
1) Intraprostatic stage is characterized by the development of tumors in the prostate.
2) Stage of local invasion occurs when a tumor break the capsule (shell) and the prostate begins to spread in the environment
3) The stage of generalization involves the formation of distant metastases (lung, liver, kidneys, bones, brain, etc.).
If it is not detected in the initial, intraprostatic stage prostate cancer is overwhelmingly lethal disease, regardless of previous treatment attempts. However, one should know that the treatment in this case extends life.
If prostate cancer is detected in time, i.e at the initial stage then, the patient usually can be cured, almost completely and continue to lead a normal life.
For timely detection of prostate disease are very important regular controls of the prostate. The most common issues related to regular controls of prostate-see here.
Symptoms of prostate cancer
Unfortunately, the occurrence of prostate cancer runs normally without any symptoms. That is why it is difficult to detect it on time-while it is still curable. If there is a simultaneous and BPH, there may be symptoms that characterize the enlarged prostate.
In the later development of the disease affects different symptoms, including pain, depending on the organs that are affected. (lungs, liver, kidneys, colon, spine, wrists brain).
The general situation is also disturbed, there is fatigue, loss of appetite and anemia.
Diagnosing prostate cancer
Diagnosis is based on urological examination, laboratory tests and other diagnostic procedures.
Urologist takes a detailed history (talk with a patient about the disease during the current and previous illnesses, etc. Among other things, the urologist will do the digital rectal examination (DRE), which is a prostate exam with a finger through the anus of the patient. Such a review is simple, brief and painless, but also In addition it is of great importance. Further, there is the ultrasound examination of the urinary tract and prostate and, if necessary, and other recordings and reviews.
Great importance is given to the laboratory analysis. Among other analysis is also considered the value of PSA (prostate specific antigen), which can indicate with considerable accuracy the presence or absence of prostate cancer.
PSA (prostate specific antigen)
Discovery of PSA and its use in clinical practice has significantly contributed to an earlier detection of prostate cancer. A huge number of scientific testing has been done regarding the PSA and its value as the value of its relations with other parameters (time, size of the prostate or of certain parts of the prostate, increasing speed values etc.-so called. PSA derivatives).
What is important for every man is that the interpretation of PSA level is very complex and depends on many factors. Thus, the custom of the laity to compare the laboratory results with normal values that the laboratory states and thus are performed by independent conclusions is not good.
Correct interpretation of the PSA level is very complicated and should be left to a urologist!
Treatment of prostate cancer
The choice of treatment is influenced by several factors: patient’s age, general condition of the body, the condition of the heart and lungs, stage of cancer development and the degree of malignancy, side effects and possible complications of these different approaches, etc.
Generally it can be said that the choice of treatment according to the stage of tumor development is the following:
Intraprostatic tumor – An attitude (no action shall be taken, but is closely monitoring the situation through regular monitoring
– A radical prostate surgery (removal of the entire prostate with a specific surgery)
– Radiation therapy
– Endocrine therapy (aims to reduce the effects of male sex hormones that help the growth of tumors, which can be achieved by surgery-removing the testicles or medicines)
The aforementioned methods of treatment can sometimes be combined.
Also in the course of scientific tests and other treatment options are likely to represent the future in this field, but it is not possible to say anything with certainty about their effectiveness.